Resources

The resources section is a repository of linkspublications and funding sources to support communities for a lifetime initiatives at the local level. 

If you are aware of additional resources not listed here, please submit suggestions to DHS.lifetime@state.mn.us, including the complete title and internet location of the resource. 

LINKS

Minnesota and national links are organized alphabetically by title under the categories below:

Minnesota Links Community Development Process

  • Center for Community Stewardship Focuses on helping communities identify, grow and support strong leaders. Successful communities can be built, and every community has the leadership it needs to get there.
  • Elderberry Institute – Living at Home Block Nurse Programs Serves as resource center to support community efforts to build Living at Home/Block Nurse Programs in new neighborhoods, towns and cities.
  • University of Minnesota Extension – Center for Community Vitality Helps local governments and community members work together to strengthen their communities, offering a wide variety of tools, trainings and resources.
  • University of Minnesota Morris – Center for Small Towns Assists Minnesota's small towns with locally identified issues by creating applied learning opportunities for faculty and students.
  • Vital Aging Network – Vital Communities Toolkit Builds the capacity of individuals to create vital communities. Assessment and Planning Tools
  • Connect Minnesota Works to ensure all communities rural and urban have access to the unlimited benefits associated with broadband internet.
  • Minnesota Compass Provides everyone in Minnesota – policymakers, business and community leaders, and concerned individuals who live and work here – a common set of data to act on issues to improve our communities.
  • Minnesota Department of Transportation – Long-Range Road Construction Plans Provides information on future highway projects.
  • Minnesota League of Cities – Changing Demographics Explores the issues and trends related to changing demographics at the community level.
  • Minnesota State Demographic Center Analyzes and distributes data from state, U.S. Census Bureau and other sources through a wide array of medium. 
  • Transform 2010 – Project Home Page Prepares Minnesota for the coming age wave of baby boomers and a permanent shift in the age of our state’s population.
  • Transform 2010 – Data Portal  Provides individuals and groups with county level data to support planning and action in their communities and regions.
  • University of Minnesota Extension – Center for Community Vitality Helps local governments and community members work together to strengthen their communities, offering a wide variety of tools, trainings and resources.
  • University of Minnesota Morris – Center for Small Towns Assists Minnesota's small towns with locally identified issues by creating applied learning opportunities for faculty and students.
  • Vital Aging Network – Vital Communities Toolkit Helps shorten the discovery process so that people start with “best practices” and therefore go down fewer dead-end trails. Improvements to Physical Infrastructure
  • Blandin Foundation Broadband Initiative   Works to help communities optimize their use of broadband-based technologies to improve their economic competitiveness in a global economy.
  • Connect Minnesota Works to ensure all communities rural and urban have access to the unlimited benefits associated with broadband internet.
  • Design for Health Bridges the gap between the emerging research on community design and healthy living and the everyday realities of local government planning.
  • Lifetime Home Project Promotes comfortable, safe, long-term living at home by advancing the understanding of accessible and universal design techniques, home telehealth, and flexible living options.
  • Minnesota Centers for Independent Living Advocates for and provides access to the services needed by persons with disabilities so that they may live independently in the situation and community of their choice.
  • Minnesota Complete Streets Coalition Works collaboratively with individuals and groups across the state to make our streets and roads safe for all users.
  • Minnesota Department of Health – Statewide Health Improvement Program (SHIP) Aims to help Minnesotans live longer, healthier lives by reducing the burden of chronic disease.
  • Minnesota Department of Transportation – Complete Streets  Works to develop a balanced system that integrates all modes and users through planning.
  • Minnesota Department of Transportation – Long-Range Road Construction Plans Provides information on future highway projects.
  • Minnesota Green Communities Fosters the creation of affordable, healthier, and more energy efficient housing throughout Minnesota.
  • Minnesota Pollution Control Agency – Minnesota GreenStep Cities Offers cost-effective, simple pathways leading to implementation of sustainable best practices that focus on greenhouse gas reduction at the community level.
  • Refinance Mortgage Rates Consolidates a myriad of information regarding mortgages in order to provide clear, concise and easily digestible information that will help consumers make informed decisions when purchasing or maintaining a home. Improvements to Social Infrastructure
  • Center for Community Stewardship Focuses on helping communities identify, grow and support strong leaders. Successful communities can be built, and every community has the leadership it needs to get there.
  • Citizens League Builds civic imagination and capacity in Minnesota.
  • Design for Health Bridges the gap between the emerging research on community design and healthy living and the everyday realities of local government planning.
  • Elderberry Institute – Living at Home Block Nurse Programs Serves as resource center to support community efforts to build Living at Home/Block Nurse Programs in new neighborhoods, towns and cities.
  • Minnesota Active Citizenship Initiative Builds the civic infrastructure needed for a just society by drawing upon the authority and the obligation of citizens to govern for the common good.
  • Minnesota Centers for Independent Living Advocates for and provides access to the services needed by persons with disabilities so that they may live independently in the situation and community of their choice.
  • Minnesota Department of Health – Statewide Health Improvement Program (SHIP) Aims to help Minnesotans live longer, healthier lives by reducing the burden of chronic disease.
  • Reimagine Rural Supports rural residents who want to be a part of building a new future for their communities.
  • Vital Aging Network Helps 50+ adults be self-sufficient, live fulfilling and meaningful lives, and contribute to strong communities. Improvements to Service Infrastructure
  • Blandin Foundation Broadband Initiative   Works to help communities optimize their use of broadband-based technologies to improve their economic competitiveness in a global economy.
  • Connect Minnesota Works to ensure all communities rural and urban have access to the unlimited benefits associated with broadband internet.
  • Disability Minnesota Provides a single entry point to over 100 Minnesota state agency programs, products, and services that are devoted to the range of disability issues.
  • Elderberry Institute – Living at Home Block Nurse Programs Serves as resource center to support community efforts to build Living at Home/Block Nurse Programs in new neighborhoods, towns and cities.
  • Minnesota Association of Area Agencies on Aging Provides information on Minnesota’s six regional Area Agencies on Aging, which serve seniors, providers and communities on matters relating to aging.
  • Minnesota Board on Aging Ensures that older Minnesotans and their families are effectively served by state and local policies and programs -- in order to age well and live well.
  • Minnesota Centers for Independent Living Advocates for and provides access to the services needed by persons with disabilities so that they may live independently in the situation and community of their choice.
  • Minnesota Consortium for Citizens with Disabilities Addresses public policy issues that affect people with disabilities by collaborating with others, advocating, educating, influencing change and creating awareness for understanding.
  • Minnesota Leadership Council on Aging Organizes consumer, advocacy, social and health service organizations to advocate boldly for positive system changes for older adults and their families in Minnesota.
  • Minnesota State Council on Disability Provides comprehensive disability resources to lawmakers, agencies, non-profits, businesses and individuals with disabilities.
  • Refinance Mortgage Rates Consolidates a myriad of information regarding mortgages in order to provide clear, concise and easily digestible information that will help consumers make informed decisions when purchasing or maintaining a home. National Links Overview of Communities for a Lifetime Concept
  • AdvantAge Initiative Helps counties, cities, and towns prepare for the growing number of older adults who are "aging in place" while creating livable communities for people of all ages.
  • Aging in Place Initiative A project of Partners for Livable Communities and the National Association of Area Agencies on Aging to help America’s communities prepare for the aging of their population and to become places that are good to grow up, live in and grow old.
  • Communities for all Ages Promotes the well-being of all age groups with a multi-generational perspective and by helping organizations, community residents of all ages, and policymakers to work together as allies for community change.
  • National Council on Disability Provides advice to the President, Congress, and executive branch agencies to promote policies, programs, practices, and procedures...to empower individuals with disabilities to achieve economic self-sufficiency, independent living, and inclusion and integration into all aspects of society.
  • Partners for Livable Communities Works to improve the livability of communities by promoting quality of life, economic development, and social equity. Community Development Process
  • Cohousing USA Provides information on cohousing, a type of collaborative housing in which residents actively participate in the design and operation of their neighborhoods.
  • Naturally Occurring Retirement Community (NORC) Blueprint Provides resources and information for those interested in developing or supporting the development of high-quality, effective NORC programs.
  • Partners for Livable Communities Works to improve the livability of communities by promoting quality of life, economic development, and social equity.
  • National Charrette Institute Offers a unique, multi-phase, participatory planning technique to address all aspects of community planning including master plans, neighborhood plans, comprehensive plans as well as infill and redevelopment plans. Assessment and Planning Tools
  • AdvantAge Initiative Helps counties, cities, and towns prepare for the growing number of older adults who are "aging in place" while creating livable communities for people of all ages.
  • Partners for Livable Communities Works to improve the livability of communities by promoting quality of life, economic development, and social equity.
  • Walk Score Measures the walkability of a specific street address on a scale of 0 and 100 based on proximity to basic amenities.
  • USDA Atlas of Rural and Small-Town America Provides county-level maps depicting economic and social conditions along four dimensions: people, jobs, agriculture, and county classifications. Improvements to Physical Infrastructure
  • Active Living by Design Provides strategies for increasing physical activity and healthy eating through community design.
  • Aging in Place Initiative A project of Partners for Livable Communities and the National Association of Area Agencies on Aging to help America’s communities prepare for the aging of their population and to become places that are good to grow up, live in and grow old.
  • Americans with Disabilities Act Provides a portal for information and technical assistance on the Act.
  • Building Healthy Communities for Active Aging Raises public awareness across the nation about healthy synergies that can be achieved by communities combining smart growth and active aging concepts.
  • Center for Disease Control and Prevention – Healthy Places portal Promotes “healthy places;” places designed and built to improve the quality of life for all people who live, work, worship, learn, and play within their borders.
  • Center for Inclusive Design and Environmental Access (IDEA Center) Promotes environments and products that are more usable, safer and healthier in response to the needs of an increasingly diverse population.
  • Center for Universal Design Provides information, technical assistance, and produces research to promote accessible and universal design in housing, commercial and public facilities, outdoor environments, and products.
  • Cohousing USA Provides information on cohousing, a type of collaborative housing in which residents actively participate in the design and operation of their neighborhoods.
  • Community Transportation Association Promotes effective public and community transportation as a means for promoting freedom, independence, dignity and choice for people living in the cities, towns and communities.
  • Fall Prevention Center of Excellence – Home Modification portal Offers training and education opportunities for professionals who wish to respond to the increasing demand for home modification services.
  • Institute for Human-Centered Design Advances the role of design in expanding opportunity and enhancing experience for people of all ages and abilities through excellence in design.
  • National Center for Safe Routes to School Enables community leaders, schools and parents across the United States to improve safety and encourage more children, including children with disabilities, to safely walk and bicycle to school.
  • National Complete Streets Coalition Promotes design of roadways with all users in mind, including bicyclists, public transportation vehicles and riders, and pedestrians of all ages and abilities.
  • National Rails-to-Trails Conservancy Promotes the creation a nationwide network of trails from former rail lines and connecting corridors to build healthier places for healthier people.
  • National Trust for Historic Preservation Helps communities protect, enhance, and enjoy the community features that matter to them.
  • Universal Design Institute Promotes the concept and practice of accessible and universal design.
  • US Department of Transportation Livability Promotes community livability by improving transportation access, choices, efficiency, and reliability.
  • Walkable and Livable Communities Institute Works to make cities and towns throughout the world walkable, bicycle and transit friendly, livable, sustainable, socially engaging and welcoming places by improving their built form. Improvements to Social Infrastructure
  • Active Living by Design Provides strategies for increasing physical activity and healthy eating through community design.
  • Aging in Place Initiative A project of Partners for Livable Communities and the National Association of Area Agencies on Aging to help America’s communities prepare for the aging of their population and to become places that are good to grow up, live in and grow old.
  • Americans with Disabilities Act Provides a portal for information and technical assistance on the Act.
  • Better Together Provides interactive ways to celebrate and learn from the ways that Americans are connecting, and provides tools and strategies to reconnect with others.
  • Building Healthy Communities for Active Aging Raises public awareness across the nation about healthy synergies that can be achieved by communities combining smart growth and active aging concepts.
  • Center for Disease Control and Prevention – Healthy Places portal Promotes “healthy places;” places designed and built to improve the quality of life for all people who live, work, worship, learn, and play within their borders.
  • Cohousing USA Provides information on cohousing, a type of collaborative housing in which residents actively participate in the design and operation of their neighborhoods.
  • National Center for Safe Routes to School Enables community leaders, schools and parents across the United States to improve safety and encourage more children, including children with disabilities, to safely walk and bicycle to school.
  • Naturally Occurring Retirement Community (NORC) Blueprint Provides resources and information for those interested in developing or supporting the development of high-quality, effective NORC programs.
  • Social Capital Gateway Offers an international clearinghouse on research and practices related to social capital. Improvements to Service Infrastructure
  • Aging in Place Initiative A project of Partners for Livable Communities and the National Association of Area Agencies on Aging to help America’s communities prepare for the aging of their population and to become places that are good to grow up, live in and grow old.
  • Americans with Disabilities Act Provides a portal for information and technical assistance on the Act.
  • Center for Universal Design Provides information, technical assistance, and produces research to promote accessible and universal design in housing, commercial and public facilities, outdoor environments, and products.
  • Elders in Action Provides Elder Friendly® Business Certification.
  • Naturally Occurring Retirement Community (NORC) Blueprint Provides resources and information for those interested in developing or supporting the development of high-quality, effective NORC programs.
  • Community Transportation Association Promotes effective public and community transportation as a means for promoting freedom, independence, dignity and choice for people living in the cities, towns and communities. Examples of Initiatives across United States
  • AdvantAge Initiative Helps counties, cities, and towns prepare for the growing number of older adults who are "aging in place" while creating livable communities for people of all ages.
  • Aging in Place Initiative A project of Partners for Livable Communities and the National Association of Area Agencies on Aging to help America’s communities prepare for the aging of their population and to become places that are good to grow up, live in and grow old.
  • Aging Indiana Provides information on Indiana’s state-wide effort to plan elder-friendly Hoosier communities.
  • Atlanta Regional Commission – Lifelong Communities project  Provides information on the ten-county Atlanta region’s efforts to work with counties, cities and neighborhoods to create Lifelong Communities—places where individuals can live throughout their lifetime.
  • Building Healthy Communities for Active Aging Raises public awareness across the nation about healthy synergies that can be achieved by communities combining smart growth and active aging concepts.
  • Cohousing USA Provides information on cohousing, a type of collaborative housing in which residents actively participate in the design and operation of their neighborhoods.
  • Communities for all Ages Promotes the well-being of all age groups with a multi-generational perspective and by helping organizations, community residents of all ages, and policymakers to work together as allies for community change.
  • Contra Costa for Every Generation Provides information on Contra Costa, CA and its effort to build an aging-friendly community.
  • Florida Communities for a Lifetime Provides information on Florida’s state-wide effort to build communities for a lifetime.
  • Michigan Communities for a Lifetime Provides information on Michigan’s state-wide effort to build communities for a lifetime.


PUBLICATIONS


Minnesota and national publications are organized alphabetically by title under the categories below:

Minnesota Publications

  • Overview of Communities for a Lifetime Concept
  • Community Development Process
  • Assessment and Planning Tools 
  • Practical Guide to Universal Home Design (2002) 
  • Improvements to Social Infrastructure
  • Improvements to Service Infrastructure 
  • Examples of Initiatives across Minnesota

National Publications

  • Overview of Communities for a Lifetime Concept
  • Community Development Process
  • Assessment and Planning Tools
  • Improvements to Physical Infrastructure
  • Improvements to Social Infrastructure
  • Improvements to Service Infrastructure
  • Examples of Initiatives across United States

 

Minnesota Publications

Overview of Communities for a Lifetime Concept

  • A Blueprint for 2010: Preparing Minnesota for the Age Wave (2007)
  • Building Communities for a Lifetime in Minnesota: A report to the 2010 Minnesota Legislature (2010)
  • CAN DO Initiative: Improving communities for people with disabilities (2007)
  • Creating Communities for a Lifetime: Minnesota Success Stories (2009)
  • Creating Healthy Communities for an Aging Population: A Report of a Joint Rural Health Advisory
  • Committee and State Community Health Services Advisory Committee Work Group (2006)

Community Development Process

  • CAN DO Initiative: Improving communities for people with disabilities (2007)
  • Creating Communities for a Lifetime: Minnesota Success Stories (2009)
  • Forming a Community Based Network: A Handbook (1999)

Assessment and Planning Tools

  • A Blueprint for 2010: Preparing Minnesota for the Age Wave (2007)
  • Walkable Community Workshops through Minnesota Department of Health (2010)
  • Walkability: Albert Lea, Minnesota (2009) 

Improvements to Physical Infrastructure

  • Complete Streets: Supporting Safe and Accessible Roads for Everyone [Local Governments] (2010)
  • Complete Streets: Supporting Safe and Accessible Roads for Everyone [Advocates] (2010)
  • Complete Streets Report: A Report Commissioned for the Minnesota Legislature (2009)
  • Creating Communities for a Lifetime: Minnesota Success Stories (2009)
  • Minnesota Department of Transportation Overview of Planning and Programming (2010)
  • Practical Guide to Universal Home Design (2002)
  • Summary of Minnesota Complete Streets Legislation (2010)
  • Walkability: Albert Lea, Minnesota (2009)

Improvements to Social Infrastructure

  • Creating Communities for a Lifetime: Minnesota Success Stories (2009)
  • Forming a Community Based Network: A Handbook (1999)
  • What Will Keep Family Caregivers Caring? Policy Alternatives for Minnesota (2009)

Improvements to Service Infrastructure 

  • Creating Communities for a Lifetime: Minnesota Success Stories (2009)
  • Forming a Community Based Network: A Handbook (1999)

Examples of Initiatives across Minnesota

  • Are We a Senior-Friendly Community: Olmsted County, Minnesota (2005) 
  • Building Communities for a Lifetime in Minnesota: A report to the 2010 Minnesota Legislature (2010)
  • Creating Communities for a Lifetime: Minnesota Success Stories (2009)
  • Walkability: Albert Lea, Minnesota (2009) 

National Publications

  • Overview of Communities for a Lifetime Concept A Blueprint for Action: Developing a Livable Community for All Ages (2007)
  • A Tale of Two Older Americas: Community Opportunities and Challenges (2004)
  • Beyond 50.05 – A Report to the Nation on Livable Communities: Creating Environments for Successful Aging (2005)
  • Creating Livable Communities (2006)
  • Design Guidelines for a Lifespan Community (2009)
  • Florida Communities for a Lifetime Blueprint (2007)
  • Global Age-friendly Cities: A Guide (2007)
  • Livable Communities for Adults with Disabilities (2004)
  • Opportunities for Creating Livable Communities (2008)
  • The Maturing of America: Communities Moving Forward for an Aging Population (2011)

Community Development Process

  • Aging in Place: A Toolkit for Local Governments (2004)
  • Aging in Place: Technical Assistance Guide (2007)
  • Michigan Community for a Lifetime Action Plan (2007)

 

Assessment and Planning Tools

  • Aging in Place: A Toolkit for Local Governments (2004)
  • Aging in Place: Technical Assistance Guide (2007)
  • Creating Senior-Healthy Communities: Removing Regulatory Barriers (2007)
  • Lifelong Communities: A Regional Guide to Growth and Longevity (2009)
  • Livable Communities: An Evaluation Guide (2005)
  • Michigan Community for a Lifetime Elder Friendly Community Assessment (2007)
  • Older Adults in the Atlanta Region: Preferences, Practices and Potential of the 55+ Population (2007)

 

 

Improvements to Physical Infrastructure

  • 55+ Housing: Builder, Buyers, and Beyond (2009)
  • Blueprint for Affordable Elder Housing in Communities for a Lifetime: A resource for affordable homes, communities and mobility solutions that are Senior-Friendly, Boomer-Ready (2009)
  • Designing Places and Spaces for Now and in the Future: Developing a Livable St. Louis Region for All (2009)
  • Growing Smarter, Living Healthier: A Guide to Smart Growth and Active Living (2009)
  • Home Design and Modification Checklist for Aging in Place (2010)
  • Home Modification: Your Key to Comfort, Safety, and Independent Living (2006)
  • Increasing Home Access: Designing for Visitability (2008)
  • Increasing Transportation & Mobility Options: Creating Livable Miami-Dade & Monroe Counties (2008)
  • Innovations for Seniors: Public and Community Transit Services Respond to Special Needs (2004)
  • Land Use Planning and Design: Developing a Livable Centralina Region for All Ages (2008)
  • Lifelong Communities: A Regional Guide to Growth and Longevity (2009)
  • Planning Complete Streets for an Aging America (2009)
  • Redesigning Communities for Aging in Place: Developing a Livable San Antonio for All Ages (2009)
  • Safe Mobility for a Maturing Society: Challenges and Opportunities (2003)
  • The Role of Housing: Developing a Livable Kansas City Metro Area for All Ages (2008)
  • Transportation Innovations for Seniors: A Synopsis of Findings in Rural America (2006)

 

Improvements to Social Infrastructure

  • Aging Implications: A Wake-up Call. What can employers, workers, educators, philanthropists, state and local policymakers do? (2009)
  • Engaging Older Adults through Arts and Culture: Developing a Livable Chicago for All Ages (2008)
  • Enhancing Lifelong Learning: Developing a Livable San Diego County for All Ages (2008)
  • Evidence Based Interventions to Improve Physical Activity in Older Adults (2009)
  • Growing Smarter, Living Healthier: A Guide to Smart Growth and Active Living (2009)
  • The Boomer Solution: Skilled Talent to Meet Nonprofit Needs (2010)
  • Workforce Development and Nonprofit Capacity Building: Developing a Livable Arizona for All Ages (2007)

Improvements to Service Infrastructure

  • A Toolkit for Serving Diverse Communities (2010)
  • Evidence Based Interventions to Improve Physical Activity in Older Adults (2009)

 

Examples of Initiatives across United States

  • Aging with a Comprehensive Approach: Developing a Livable Tampa Bay Region for All Ages (2007)
  • Compendium of Community Aging Initiatives (2010)
  • Designing Places and Spaces for Now and in the Future: Developing a Livable St. Louis Region for All (2009)
  • Engaging Older Adults through Arts and Culture: Developing a Livable Chicago for All Ages (2008)
  • Enhancing Lifelong Learning: Developing a Livable San Diego County for All Ages (2008)
  • Increasing Transportation & Mobility Options: Creating Livable Miami-Dade & Monroe Counties (2008)
  • Land Use Planning and Design: Developing a Livable Centralina Region for All Ages (2008)
  • Lifelong Communities: A Regional Guide to Growth and Longevity (2009)
  • Michigan Community for a Lifetime Elder Friendly Community Recognition Program History and Project Development Report (2007)
  • Older Adults in the Atlanta Region: Preferences, Practices and Potential of the 55+ Population (2007)
  • Redesigning Communities for Aging in Place: Developing a Livable San Antonio for All Ages (2009)
  • The Role of Housing: Developing a Livable Kansas City Metro Area for All Ages (2008)
  • Workforce Development and Nonprofit Capacity Building: Developing a Livable Arizona for All Ages (2007) 


FUNDING

  • Funding
  • Blandin Foundation
  • Design for Health – Financing Health and Planning Initiatives
  • Home Depot – Building Healthy Communities Grant Program
  • Minnesota Council on Foundations
  • Minnesota Department of Health – Statewide Health Improvement Program grants
  • Minnesota Department of Human Services – Community Services/Community Services Development (CS/SD) grants
  • State of Minnesota Grants

Awards

  • Environmental Protection Agency – Building Healthy Communities for Active Aging Award This award recognizes communities for their outstanding comprehensive approaches to implementing principles of smart growth, as well as strategies that support active aging.
  • League of Minnesota Cities – City of Excellence Awards The City of Excellence Awards recognize cities for programs that have helped their cities progress in some way. Awards are given in three different population categories and by one special topic, which is different each year. Topical categories in recent years have included serving senior populations and doing more with less.
  • League of Minnesota Cities – C.C. Ludwig & Leadership Awards The C.C. Ludwig Awards recognize elected officials who have made significant contributions to Minnesota city government.  Similarly, the Leadership Awards honor appointed city officials who have gone above and beyond the call of duty for their community.
  • Minnesota Department of Health – Governor’s Fit City Program Award recipients are designated as a Governor's Fit City and receive a recognition plaque to be displayed within the city.  In addition, information on each Governor's Fit City will be posted on the Minnesota Department of Health website.
  • National Organization on Disability – Accessible America Award  Accessible America is a $25,000 award competition open to all cities and towns across the nation. Its purpose is to recognize and promote replication of exemplary practices that communities use to facilitate the comprehensive involvement of citizens with disabilities in community life.
  • Reinventing Minnesota – Minnesota Community Pride Competition Recognizes communities statewide for their efforts to move beyond the current economic challenge with creative and proactive community and economic development innovations. 
  • Walk Friendly Communities Recognizes communities that are working to improve a wide range of conditions related to walking, including safety, mobility, access, and comfort.